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Book Details

  New Book

THE MEANING OF LANGUAGE, 2/E


By HEIDI SAVAGE, MELISSA EBBERS  (Author)
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Price : $ 35.00  
ISBN : 9780262535731  
Dimension : 6 in x 9 in 19 b&w illus    Page : 396
Year of Publication : 2019    Edition : 2
Publisher : MIT PRESS
Subject : PHILOSOPHY




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Description :

Summary A new edition of a comprehensive introduction to the philosophy of language, substantially updated and reorganized. The philosophy of language aims to answer a broad range of questions about the nature of language, including “what is a language?” and “what is the source of meaning?” This accessible comprehensive introduction to the philosophy of language begins with the most basic properties of language and only then proceeds to the phenomenon of meaning. The second edition has been significantly expanded and reorganized, putting the original content in a contemporary context and offering substantial new material, with extended discussions and entirely new chapters. After establishing the basics, the book discusses general criteria for an adequate theory of meaning, takes a first pass at describing meaning at an abstract level, and distinguishes between meaning and other related phenomena. Building on this, the book then addresses various specific theories of meaning, beginning with early foundational theories and proceeding to more contemporary ones. New to this edition are expanded discussions of Chomsky's work and compositional semantics, among other topics, and new chapters on such subjects as propositions, Montague grammar, and contemporary theories of language. Each chapter has technical terms in bold, followed by definitions, and offers a list of main points and suggested further readings. The book is suitable for use in undergraduate courses in philosophy and linguistics. Some background in philosophy is assumed, but knowledge of philosophy of language is not necessary.


Heidi Savage Heidi Savage is Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Women and Gender Studies at SUNY Geneseo. Melissa Ebbers Melissa Ebbers is a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University. Robert M. Martin Robert M. Martin is Professor of Philosophy (retired) at Dalhousie University, Halifax.

Content :

Preface and Acknowledgments xv MODULE 1: Introduction 1 0 Readme: About This Book 3 0.1 Overview of the Book 0.2 Some Special Conventions 1. Introduction to Language 7 1.1 The Infinity Property 1.2 Novelty 1.3 The Implications of Infinity and Novelty 1.4 Compositionality 1.5 Propositions 1.6 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings MODULE 2: Language Learning 17 2. Grammar Nativism and Empiricism 19 2.1 Empiricism about Our Knowledge of Grammar: The Behaviorist Account of Grammar Acquisition 2.2 Objection to Behaviorism: Poverty of the Stimulus 2.3 Responses to the Poverty of the Stimulus Argument 2.4 Chomskyan Language-Acquisition Device 2.5 The Anti-universality Objection 2.6 The Immunity Objection 2.7 The Alternative Hypothesis Objection 2.8 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 3. The Language-Acquisition Mechanism 33 3.1 General and Specific Innate Learning Mechanisms 3.2 Limiting the Number of Hypotheses 3.3 Cowie’s Empiricist View 3.4 Stochastic Generalization 3.5 Connectionism 3.6 Constructivism 3.7 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 4. Concept Nativism and Empiricism 45 4.1 Concepts 4.2 Fodor’s Nativism 4.3 Empiricist Counterarguments 4.4 Fodor’s Defense 4.5 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 5. Quine on Language Acquisition 55 5.1 The Radical Translator’s Job 5.2 Why the Slate Isn’t Blank 5.3 Quine’s Concessions to Nativism 5.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings MODULE 3: Syntax and Logical Form 67 6. Phrase Structure Grammar 69 6.1 Simple Phrase Structure Grammar 6.2 Recursive Rules 6.3 The Limits of Simple Phrase Structure Grammar 6.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 7. Transformational Grammar 79 7.1 Transformational Grammar 7.2 Difficulties for Transformational Grammar 7.3 Generative and Universal Grammar 7.4 Further Developments 7.5 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 8. Logical Form: Sentences and Their Structural Types 87 8.1 The Aristotelian Analysis 8.2 Function and Argument 8.3 The Existential Quantifier 8.4 The Universal Quantifier 8.5 Entailment and Other Matters 8.6 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 9. Montague Grammar 99 9.1 Taking a Longer View of the Mismatch Problem 9.2 Montague’s Project and His Theoretical Commitments 9.3 The Lambda Calculus 9.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings MODULE 4: Semantics 115 10. Introducing Descriptivism and Millianism 117 10.1 The Idea Theory 10.2 Mill and Millianism 10.3 Problems for Millianism 10.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 11. Two Influential Varieties of Descriptivism 135 11.1 Frege’s “Senses” 11.2 Frege on the Problems involving Proper Names 11.3 Russell’s Descriptivism about Proper Names 11.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 12. Neo-Millianism 145 12.1 Kripke on Proper Names 12.2 Putnam on Natural Kinds 12.3 Problems with Neo-Millianism 12.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 13. Verificationism 161 13.1 Meaning as Verifiability 13.2 Verification Conditions for Synthetic Sentences 13.3 A Problem for Verificationism 13.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 14. Challenges for Verificationism 169 14.1 Observability in Principle 14.2 Indirect Confirmation and Meaning 14.3 Verification and Confirmation 14.4 Quine Contra Positivism 14.5 Ethical Sentences 14.6 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 15. Truth-Conditional Semantics 179 15.1 Meaning as Truth Conditions 15.2 Axioms of the Theory 15.3 Inferences 15.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 16. Challenges for Truth-Conditional Semantics 189 16.1 An Objection 16.2 Davidson and Quine 16.3 The Main Problem 16.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 17. Possible-Worlds Semantics 199 17.1 Possible Worlds 17.2 Standard Possible-Worlds Semantics 17.3 Intensions of Predicates and Sentences 17.4 The Modal Properties of Sentences 17.5 Propositional Attitudes Revisited 17.6 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 18. Challenges for Possible-Worlds Semantics 215 18.1 A Problem: Cointensive Expressions 18.2 Logical Truths 18.3 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember References and Suggested Readings 19. Two-Dimensional Semantics 19.1 Epistemic Two-Dimensional Semantics 19.2 An Illustration of Two-Dimensional Intensions 19.3 The Two-Dimensional Matrix 19.4 The Two-Dimensional Intension for Sentences 19.5 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 20. Challenges for Two-Dimensional Semantics 239 20.1 The Big Picture and Solutions 20.2 Residual Problems 20.3 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 21. Meaning as Use 249 21.1 Introducing Use Theory 21.2 Language as a Toolkit 21.3 Family Resemblance and Language Games 21.4 The Big Picture 21.5 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 22. Contemporary Use Theory 261 22.1 Functional Characterizations 22.2 The Role of Expressions 22.3 Some Worries for Contemporary Use Theories 22.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 23. Quinean Skepticism 273 23.1 The Insurmountable Problem 23.2 Quine on Synonymy 23.3 Concepts and Belief 23.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings MODULE 5: Pragmatics 287 24. Near-Side Pragmatics: Indexicals 289 24.1 Deictics: Indexicals and Demonstratives 24.2 Is It Ambiguity 24.3 A Description Theory for Indexicals 24.4 Kaplan on Character and Content 24.5 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 25. Near-Side Pragmatics:Demonstratives, Anaphora, Ellipsis 303 25.1 Demonstratives 25.2 Anaphora 25.3 Ellipsis 25.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 26. Far-Side Pragmatics: Pragmatic Implication 311 26.1 Beyond What’s Said 26.2 Implication and Entailment 26.3 Pragmatic Implication 26.4 Presupposition 26.5 Pragmatic versus Semantic Presupposition 26.6 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 27. Far-Side Pragmatics: Conversational Implicature 321 27.1 Grice’s Maxims 27.2 The Maxim of Quantity 27.3 The Maxim of Relation 27.4 The Maxim of Quality 27.5 The Maxim of Manner 27.6 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 28. Far-Side Pragmatics: Speech Act Theory 329 28.1 Levels of Action Description 28.2 Doing Things with Words 28.3 Intentions 28.4 Force and Content 28.5 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 29. Far-Side Pragmatics: When Speech Acts Go Wrong 341 29.1 Misfires 29.2 Abuses 29.3 Speech Acts and Truth Values 29.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings MODULE 6: Normativity 351 30. Is Language Governed by Rules? 353 30.1 A Martian Attends a Football Game 30.2 Are There Rules of Language 30.3 Rules Are Officially Enacted, Inscribed, and Well-KnownGuides to Behavior 30.4 Rules Are Directive 30.5 Breaking a Rule Has Consequences 30.6 Rule-Fittingversus Rule-Guided Behavior 30.7 Knowing How to Go On 30.8 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 31. Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language 365 31.1 The Private Language Argument 31.2 A Trip to the Zoo 31.3 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings 32. Kripkenstein’s Rule-Following Skepticism 373 32.1 Kripkenstein on Rules 32.2 A Further Kripkensteinian Argument 32.3 Social Practices and Rules 32.4 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember References and Suggested Readings 33. Linguistic Conventions 379 33.1 Coordination Problems and Their Solutions 33.2 Conventions 33.3 Conventional Signaling 33.4 Conventions and Normativity 33.5 Conventional Behavior as Consciously Motivated Action 33.6 How Many Linguistic Conventions Are There? 33.7 Concluding Remarks Main Points to Remember Glossary References and Suggested Readings Index 391
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